EFA Nutrition 1-2 Yr-Olds
Essential Fatty Acid Nutrition in Infants 1 to 2 Years-of-Age
This is a prospective longitudinal study that will involve 200 infants enrolled at 12-13
months of age. The study will use a classic nutrition design to assess if infants' feeding
practices in Canada place infants 1-2 years of age at risk for low long chain
polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA), nutrients known to influence growth, and brain and
immune system development. On enrollment, infants will be assigned at random to a nutrition
supplement providing omega 6 and omega 3 LCPUFA or a PUFA placebo.
The objectives are to1. determine the change in dietary fat and PUFA intakes, change in
biochemical measures of fatty acid status prospectively from enrollment to 24 months-of-age
and 2. to use a nutritional intervention with LCPUFA to address if limiting status of these
nutrients impacts growth and development to 24 months-of-age. Primary Endpoints are
distributions of developmental tests scores, growth quality and parental reports of child
illness. The Bayley Mental and Motor Scales (BSID-III), Peabody Picture Test, Beery
Buktenica Developmental Test, Auditory Continuous Performance Test and Test of Attention and
Distractibility are used. Growth is assessed as height, weight, and adipose tissue mass and
distribution. Child illness is reported by the parent. Secondary endpoints are physiologic
measures of blood pressure, heart rate and heart rate variability, and the genetic variables
in fatty acid metabolism on fatty acid status and outcome. Blood is collected at enrolment
and at 24 months-of-age. Lipids and fatty acids are assessed on plasma and blood cells.
Routine, potentially confounding nutrients including iron, vitamin D, choline, folate and
B12 are assessed. DNA is extracted from blood cells for genotyping. Dietary intake is
assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), 3 day food diaries and 24 hour recalls.
A parent report illness dairy and questionnaire modified from the International Study of
Asthma and Allergies in Childhood is used to assess illness incidence and duration.
Descriptive statistics will be used to present subject characteristics, dietary intakes,
growth and physiological measures and test results of total fat. Logistic regression, with
multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of a negative outcome and corresponding 95% CI will
be sued to assess the effect of LCPUFA status on development, growth and health outcomes.
For all multivariate models, potential confounders will be screened in stepwise fashion, and
any covariate with a regression coefficient P-value < 0.05 (two-sided) will be retained.
Performance on tests will be compared as LCPUFA status in the lowest quintile compared to
highest quintile of outcome (i.e. the two ends of the distribution differ in LCPUFA status).
Polyunsaturated fatty acids, Cognitive development, Growth, Infection
University of British Columbia
University of British Columbia, DSM Nutritional Products, Inc., DSM Food Specialties
Active, not recruiting