Enteral Nutrition in Congestive Heart Failure and Cardiac Cachexia

NCT ID: NCT00654719

The Influence of Enteral Nutrition on Functional Status and Inflammatory Activation in Patients With Congestive Heart Failure and Cardiac Cachexia.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a high caloric drink on weight and several other clinical markers including quality of life in patients with unintentional weight loss (cachexia) due to chronic heart failure.
Cardiac cachexia has been shown to be powerful independent predictor of mortality in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). Unlike starvation, cachectic CHF patients present with a decrease of muscles and/or fat tissue. This probably depends, at least in part, on the level of inflammatory activation. Theoretically, it seems clear that nutritional status has to be improved in cardiac cachexia. It has been suggested that inflammatory activation in CHF may be due to endotoxin translocation through the edematous gut wall. Elevated endotoxin levels have been found in patients with acutely decompensated CHF, but these levels normalized with diuretic treatment. This finding may be of utmost importance. From one side it underscores the need for aggressive diuretic treatment to prevent translocation, from another side however, it suggests potential area for enteral treatment. Enteral route of nutrition may be highly beneficial by diminishing bacterial translocation from guts and/or endotoxin transfer, finally resulting in lower inflammatory activation Numerous experimental studies display that enteral feeding reduces bacterial translocation, endotoxin absorption and positively modulates function of local immune tissue. A search of the literature shows that very little is known about the effectiveness of nutritional support on functional performance in cachectic CHF patients and actually no reports concern the influence of enteral feeding on immune activation of cachectic CHF patients. Recent information of some links existing between leptin, which is increased in CHF, and inflammatory activation in this syndrome speculate on a functional role of leptin in immune activation in CHF. As leptin is one of the most important hormones in the regulation of body energy metabolism, we think it is reasonable to look also into enteral feeding -induced changes of leptin and concomitant fluctuations of plasma cytokines. During the last 12 months we have been using nutritional support in cachectic patients with CHF as an adjunct to standard therapy. We were surprised by a significant functional improvement that we observed in many instances. As most of these patients were subjected to aggressive multi-drug diuretic therapy as well, it was impossible to appreciate the role of enteral nutrition in this respect. We think, these observations are worth verification in more controlled prospective studies.
Chronic Heart Failure, Cardiac Cachexia
Heart failure, cachexia
National Heart and Lung Institute
National Heart and Lung Institute, Nutricia Research Fundation
Last Updated
02 Apr 2008
Official Link
Anker SD, Ponikowski P, Varney S, Chua TP, Clark AL, Webb-Peploe KM, Harrington D, Kox WJ, Poole-Wilson PA, Coats AJ. Wasting as independent risk factor for mortality in chronic heart failure. Lancet. 1997 Apr 12;349(9058):1050-3. Erratum in: Lancet 1997 Apr 26;349(9060):1258.

Anker SD, Ponikowski PP, Clark AL, Leyva F, Rauchhaus M, Kemp M, Teixeira MM, Hellewell PG, Hooper J, Poole-Wilson PA, Coats AJ. Cytokines and neurohormones relating to body composition alterations in the wasting syndrome of chronic heart failure. Eur Heart J. 1999 May;20(9):683-93.

Niebauer J, Volk HD, Kemp M, Dominguez M, Schumann RR, Rauchhaus M, Poole-Wilson PA, Coats AJ, Anker SD. Endotoxin and immune activation in chronic heart failure: a prospective cohort study. Lancet. 1999 May 29;353(9167):1838-42.

Sax HC, Illig KA, Ryan CK, Hardy DJ. Low-dose enteral feeding is beneficial during total parenteral nutrition. Am J Surg. 1996 Jun;171(6):587-90.

Kotani J, Usami M, Nomura H, Iso A, Kasahara H, Kuroda Y, Oyanagi H, Saitoh Y. Enteral nutrition prevents bacterial translocation but does not improve survival during acute pancreatitis. Arch Surg. 1999 Mar;134(3):287-92. Erratum in: Arch Surg 1999 Jun;134(6):643.

Guihot G, Merle V, Leborgne M, Pivert G, Corriol O, Brousse N, Ricour C, Colomb V. Enteral nutrition modifies gut-associated lymphoid tissue in rat regardless of the molecular form of nitrogen supply. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1997 Feb;24(2):153-61.

Heymsfield SB, Casper K. Congestive heart failure: clinical management by use of continuous nasoenteric feeding. Am J Clin Nutr. 1989 Sep;50(3):539-44.

Abel RM, Fischer JE, Buckley MJ, Barnett GO, Austen WG. Malnutrition in cardiac surgical patients. Results of a prospective, randomized evaluation of early postoperative parenteral nutrition. Arch Surg. 1976 Jan;111(1):45-50.

Otaki M. Surgical treatment of patients with cardiac cachexia. An analysis of factors affecting operative mortality. Chest. 1994 May;105(5):1347-51.

Anker SD, Rauchhaus M. Insights into the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure: immune activation and cachexia. Curr Opin Cardiol. 1999 May;14(3):211-6. Review.

Zhao SP, Zeng LH. Elevated plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor in chronic heart failure with cachexia. Int J Cardiol. 1997 Feb;58(3):257-61.

Steele IC, Nugent AM, Maguire S, Hoper M, Campbell G, Halliday MI, Nicholls DP. Cytokine profile in chronic cardiac failure. Eur J Clin Invest. 1996 Nov;26(11):1018-22.

Anker SD, Chua TP, Ponikowski P, Harrington D, Swan JW, Kox WJ, Poole-Wilson PA, Coats AJ. Hormonal changes and catabolic/anabolic imbalance in chronic heart failure and their importance for cardiac cachexia. Circulation. 1997 Jul 15;96(2):526-34.

Toth MJ, Gottlieb SS, Goran MI, Fisher ML, Poehlman ET. Daily energy expenditure in free-living heart failure patients. Am J Physiol. 1997 Mar;272(3 Pt 1):E469-75.

Leyva F, Anker SD, Egerer K, Stevenson JC, Kox WJ, Coats AJ. Hyperleptinaemia in chronic heart failure. Relationships with insulin. Eur Heart J. 1998 Oct;19(10):1547-51.

Cohn JN, Levine TB, Olivari MT, Garberg V, Lura D, Francis GS, Simon AB, Rector T. Plasma norepinephrine as a guide to prognosis in patients with chronic congestive heart failure. N Engl J Med. 1984 Sep 27;311(13):819-23.

Joseph J, Gilbert EM. The sympathetic nervous system in chronic heart failure. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 1998 Jul-Aug;41(1 Suppl 1):9-16. Review.

Snitker S, Pratley RE, Nicolson M, Tataranni PA, Ravussin E. Relationship between muscle sympathetic nerve activity and plasma leptin concentration. Obes Res. 1997 Jul;5(4):338-40.

Haynes WG, Morgan DA, Walsh SA, Mark AL, Sivitz WI. Receptor-mediated regional sympathetic nerve activation by leptin. J Clin Invest. 1997 Jul 15;100(2):270-8.

Haynes WG, Sivitz WI, Morgan DA, Walsh SA, Mark AL. Sympathetic and cardiorenal actions of leptin. Hypertension. 1997 Sep;30(3 Pt 2):619-23. Review.

Santos-Alvarez J, Goberna R, Sánchez-Margalet V. Human leptin stimulates proliferation and activation of human circulating monocytes. Cell Immunol. 1999 May 25;194(1):6-11.

Loffreda S, Yang SQ, Lin HZ, Karp CL, Brengman ML, Wang DJ, Klein AS, Bulkley GB, Bao C, Noble PW, Lane MD, Diehl AM. Leptin regulates proinflammatory immune responses. FASEB J. 1998 Jan;12(1):57-65.

Levy JR, LeGall-Salmon E, Santos M, Pandak WM, Stevens W. Effect of enteral versus parenteral nutrition on leptin gene expression and release into the circulation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1997 Aug 8;237(1):98-102.

Paccagnella A, Calò MA, Caenaro G, Salandin V, Jus P, Simini G, Heymsfield SB. Cardiac cachexia: preoperative and postoperative nutrition management. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1994 Sep-Oct;18(5):409-16.

Germany, Poland