Chemotherapy, Stem Cell Transplantation and Donor and Patient Vaccination for Treatment of Multiple Myeloma

NCT ID: NCT00006184


Title
Active Immunization of Sibling Stem Cell Transplant Donors Against Purified Myeloma Protein of the Stem Cell Recipient With Multiple Myeloma in the Setting of Non-Myeloablative, HLA-Matched Allogeneic Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation
Purpose
Background: The mainstay of therapy for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients remains systemic chemotherapy. Although partial remissions of up to 60% are obtained with conventional regimens, multiple myeloma is essentially an incurable disease with a median survival of approximately 30 months. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) results in a high percentage of complete remissions, but it can be associated with significant treatment-related mortality, which has been primarily attributed to conventional myeloablative transplant regimens. Recent clinical studies have shown that highly immunosuppressive yet non-myeloablative doses of fludarabine-based chemotherapy can result in alloengraftment. Even with a reduction in treatment related mortality, success with allogeneic SCT is limited by a significant risk of relapse. Donor immunization with myeloma Id in the setting of a non-myeloablative allogeneic SCT may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Objectives: Primary Objectives: To induce cellular and humoral immunity in allogeneic stem cell donors and recipients against the unique idiotype expressed by the recipient's myeloma. To determine whether antigen-specific immunity, induced in the stem cell donor, can be passively transferred to the allogeneic SCT recipient in the setting of a non-myeloablative conditioning regimen. Secondary Objectives: To evaluate the effect of the Fludarabine-(etoposide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone, cyclophosphamide) EPOCH regimen on host T cell depletion and myeloid depletion prior to allogeneic SCT. To determine the efficacy of a novel conventional chemotherapy regimen (Fludarabine-EPOCH) in the setting multiple myeloma. To determine the treatment-related morbidity and mortality of allogeneic stem cell transplantation using a non-myeloablative conditioning regimen in multiple myeloma. To determine if the re-vaccination of allogeneic stem cell donors with the unique idiotype expressed by the recipient's myeloma will enhance cellular and humoral immunity to patient specific-idiotype prior to lymphocyte donation for the treatment of patients with recurrent or progressive disease after transplantation. Eligibility: Patients 18-75 years of age with Immunoglobulin G (IgG) or Immunoglobulin A (IgA) multiple myeloma. Patients must have achieved at least a partial remission following initial conventional chemotherapy regimen or after autologous stem cell transplantation. Consenting first degree relative matched at 6/6 or 5/6 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antigens. Design: Phase 2 trial using a non-myeloablative conditioning regimen to reduce treatment-related toxicity. Recipient will undergo a plasmapheresis to obtain starting material for the isolation of idiotype protein. Donors would be immunized with an Id vaccine prepared from the patient. Prior to transplantation patients would receive a conventional chemotherapy regimen which contains agents active in myeloma and is T cell depleting. The allogeneic SCT would be performed with a conditioning regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide and fludarabine. The stem cell source would be blood mobilized with filgrastim. Recipients will be immunized with the Id vaccine following transplantation.
Details
Background: The mainstay of therapy for newly diagnosed multiple myeloma patients remains systemic chemotherapy. Although partial remissions of up to 60% are obtained with conventional regimens, multiple myeloma is essentially an incurable disease with a median survival of approximately 30 months. Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) results in a high percentage of complete remissions, but it can be associated with significant treatment-related mortality, which has been primarily attributed to conventional myeloablative transplant regimens. Recent clinical studies have shown that highly immunosuppressive yet non-myeloablative doses of fludarabine-based chemotherapy can result in allo-engraftment. Even with a reduction in treatment related mortality, success with allogeneic SCT is limited by a significant risk of relapse. Donor immunization with myeloma Id in the setting of a non-myeloablative allogeneic SCT may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of multiple myeloma. Objectives: Primary Objectives: To induce cellular and humoral immunity in allogeneic stem cell donors and recipients against the unique idiotype expressed by the recipient's myeloma. To determine whether antigen-specific immunity, induced in the stem cell donor, can be passively transferred to the allogeneic SCT recipient in the setting of a non-myeloablative conditioning regimen. Secondary Objectives: To evaluate the effect of the Fludarabine-EPOCH regimen on host T cell depletion and myeloid depletion prior to allogeneic SCT. To determine the efficacy of a novel conventional chemotherapy regimen (Fludarabine-EPOCH) in the setting multiple myeloma. To determine the treatment-related morbidity and mortality of allogeneic stem cell transplantation using a non-myeloablative conditioning regimen in multiple myeloma. To determine if the re-vaccination of allogeneic stem cell donors with the unique idiotype expressed by the recipient's myeloma will enhance cellular and humoral immunity to patient specific-idiotype prior to lymphocyte donation for the treatment of patients with recurrent or progressive disease after transplantation. Eligibility: Patients 18-75 years of age with IgG or IgA multiple myeloma. Patients must have achieved at least a partial remission following initial conventional chemotherapy regimen or after autologous stem cell transplantation. Consenting first degree relative matched at 6/6 or 5/6 HLA antigens. Design: Phase 2 trial using a non-myeloablative conditioning regimen to reduce treatment-related toxicity. Recipient will undergo a plasmapheresis to obtain starting material for the isolation of idiotype protein. Donors would be immunized with an Id vaccine prepared from the patient. Prior to transplantation patients would receive a conventional chemotherapy regimen which contains agents active in myeloma and is T cell depleting. The allogeneic SCT would be performed with a conditioning regimen consisting of cyclophosphamide and fludarabine. The stem cell source would be blood mobilized with filgrastim. Recipients will be immunized with the Id vaccine following transplantation.
Conditions
Multiple Myeloma
Keywords
Immunoablative, Mobilization, Apheresis, Multiple Myeloma, IgG Multiple Myeloma, IgA Multiple Myeloma
Source
National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (CC)
Sponsors
National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Status
Completed
Acronym
Last Updated
23 Mar 2014
URL
Official Link
Citations/Publications
Stevenson GT, Stevenson FK. Antibody to a molecularly-defined antigen confined to a tumour cell surface. Nature. 1975 Apr 24;254(5502):714-6.

Stevenson GT, Elliott EV, Stevenson FK. Idiotypic determinants on the surface immunoglobulin of neoplastic lymphocytes: a therapeutic target. Fed Proc. 1977 Aug;36(9):2268-71.

Miller RA, Maloney DG, Warnke R, Levy R. Treatment of B-cell lymphoma with monoclonal anti-idiotype antibody. N Engl J Med. 1982 Mar 4;306(9):517-22.

Foglietta M, Neelapu SS, Kwak LW, Jiang Y, Nattamai D, Lee ST, Fowler DH, Sportes C, Gress RE, Steinberg SM, Vence LM, Radvanyi L, Dwyer KC, Qazilbash MH, Bryant RN, Bishop MR. Neoantigen and tumor antigen-specific immunity transferred from immunized donors is detectable early after allogeneic transplantation in myeloma patients. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2013 Feb;48(2):269-77. doi: 10.1038/bmt.2012.132.

Locations
United States