Preventive Treatment Against Tuberculosis (TB) in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection and Confirmed Latent Tuberculous Infection

NCT ID: NCT00000638


Title
Prophylaxis Against Tuberculosis (TB) in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection and Confirmed Latent Tuberculous Infection
Purpose
To evaluate and compare the safety and effectiveness of a one-year course of isoniazid (INH) versus a two-month course of rifampin plus pyrazinamide for the prevention of reactivation tuberculosis in individuals infected with both HIV and latent (inactive) Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Current guidelines from the American Thoracic Society and the Centers for Disease Control recommend 6 to 12 months of INH for PPD (purified protein derivative)-positive individuals. Although the effectiveness of this treatment is not known for HIV-infected individuals, several studies using INH to prevent tuberculosis in presumably normal hosts have shown 60 to 80 percent effectiveness. Problems with this treatment include compliance, adverse reaction, and the possibility of not preventing disease due to tuberculosis organisms being resistant to INH. A two-month preventive treatment plan should help in increasing compliance. In addition, the use of two drugs (rifampin / pyrazinamide) may help overcome problems with drug resistance. If this study shows equal or greater effectiveness of the two-month rifampin / pyrazinamide treatment, it could alter the approach to tuberculosis prevention for both HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals.
Details
Current guidelines from the American Thoracic Society and the Centers for Disease Control recommend 6 to 12 months of INH for PPD (purified protein derivative)-positive individuals. Although the effectiveness of this treatment is not known for HIV-infected individuals, several studies using INH to prevent tuberculosis in presumably normal hosts have shown 60 to 80 percent effectiveness. Problems with this treatment include compliance, adverse reaction, and the possibility of not preventing disease due to tuberculosis organisms being resistant to INH. A two-month preventive treatment plan should help in increasing compliance. In addition, the use of two drugs (rifampin / pyrazinamide) may help overcome problems with drug resistance. If this study shows equal or greater effectiveness of the two-month rifampin / pyrazinamide treatment, it could alter the approach to tuberculosis prevention for both HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals. Patients are chosen by a random selection process to either the INH or the rifampin / pyrazinamide arm of the dose. Patients on the INH arm receive INH plus vitamin B6 (pyridoxine hydrochloride ) daily for 12 months. Patients on the other arm receive rifampin plus pyrazinamide for 60 days. Dosage of rifampin and pyrazinamide depends on weight of patient.
Conditions
HIV Infections, Tuberculosis
Keywords
Tuberculosis, Isoniazid, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Pyrazinamide, Pyridoxine, Rifampin, AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections, Drug Therapy, Combination, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, Antitubercular Agents, AIDS-Related Complex
Source
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Sponsors
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), Hoechst Marion Roussel, Lederle Laboratories
Status
Completed
Acronym
Last Updated
28 Mar 2012
URL
Official Link
Citations/Publications
Halsey N, et al. Twice weekly INH vs RIF and PZA for TB prophylaxis in HIV infected adults. Natl Conf Hum Retroviruses Relat Infect (2nd). 1995 Jan 29-Feb 2:55

Gordin F, Chaisson RE, Matts JP, Miller C, de Lourdes Garcia M, Hafner R, Valdespino JL, Coberly J, Schechter M, Klukowicz AJ, Barry MA, O'Brien RJ. Rifampin and pyrazinamide vs isoniazid for prevention of tuberculosis in HIV-infected persons: an international randomized trial. Terry Beirn Community Programs for Clinical Research on AIDS, the Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group, the Pan American Health Organization, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Study Group. JAMA. 2000 Mar 15;283(11):1445-50.

Locations
Puerto Rico, United States